Permaculture companion plants for Broccoli

Back to Broccoli

Image Name Data Description Actions
Runner Bean Runner Bean
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaseolus_coccineus
true
Fast
Moist
Full sun
1-12
Scarlet runner, scarlet runner bean, scarlet conqueror, fire bean, mammoth, red giant phaseolus coccineus ssppolyanthus (cache bean)
Light (sandy), Medium, Heavy (clay)
Fabaceae or leguminosae
3.0
Flowers, Leaves, Root, Seed, Seedpod
Annual, Perennial
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Phaseolus coccineus
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Common bean Common bean
2-11
Annual
Full sun
Moist
Light (sandy), Medium, Heavy (clay)
2.0
Vines
Nitrogen fixer
True
Leaves, Seed, Seedpod
Seed - transplant, Seed - direct sow
1 week after last frost, 12-14 weeks before first frost
2-4 weeks before last frost
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaseolus_vulgaris
Pole bean, Climbing bean, French bean, Bush bean, Dwarf bean, Kidney bean, Green bean
Fabaceae, Leguminosae
Stangenbohne
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Phaseolus vulgaris
16-18°c (70-80°f)
6.0-6.8
2.5 cm
16cm
4-10 days
45-85
Fast
Sperzieboon
This entry describes all varieties of the common bean. This includes vining and bush/darf variaties and can have different names depending on their style of growths (see alternate names). These include the kidney bean, the navy bean, the pinto bean, the French bean and the wax bean The common bean, scientific name Phaseolus vulgaris, is a herbaceous annual plant native to the Americas, specifically the regions extending from the southwestern United States to South America. It is a member of the Fabaceae (legume) family. The common bean has a range of different appearances, depending on the variety. Most varieties have a simple, erect stem that grows to a height of 20-60 cm. The leaves are typically green and consist of 3-5 oblong leaflets. The flowers are small and white, pink, or purple in color. The fruit is a legume, which contains the seeds. The common bean is typically a small plant, but some varieties can grow to be quite large, reaching heights of up to 2 meters. The plant grows relatively quickly, with the growing season typically lasting between 60-100 days. The common bean prefers well-drained soil and full sun, but can also grow in partial shade. It is sensitive to frost and should be planted after the last frost date in the spring. To cultivate the common bean successfully, a grower may need to ensure that the soil is adequately fertilized and provide support for the plant to climb, if necessary. The common bean is edible, with the seeds and the young pods being the most commonly consumed parts. The seeds can be cooked and eaten as a protein-rich vegetable, and the young pods can be eaten as a green vegetable. The edible parts can be stored after harvest by drying the seeds or by preserving the young pods in vinegar or oil. The common bean has many uses beyond being a food source. The plant can fix nitrogen in the soil, improving its fertility and making it a useful companion plant for other crops. The dried leaves and stems of the common bean can be used as mulch or as a source of organic matter. In some cultures, the fibers from the stems are used to make ropes or other weaving materials. Additionally, the plant has been used medicinally to treat a variety of ailments. The common bean is also valuable for wildlife. The flowers attract bees and other pollinators, and the plant provides food for a variety of insects, birds, and small mammals. ### Links [Beans Seed Starting Tips @ Harvest to Table](https://harvesttotable.com/beans-seed-starting-tips/) ### Propagation - direct sow Direct-sow beans in spring after all danger of frost has passed and soil is at least 16°C (60°F). In warm-winter regions, sow beans in late summer for harvest in winter. Time sowing so that beans come to harvest before the first frost. Show

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Broad Bean Broad Bean
4-8
Annual
Full sun, Partial sun/shade
Moist
Light (sandy), Medium, Heavy (clay)
1.0
Nitrogen fixer
Leaves, Seed
Seed - direct sow, Seed - transplant
6 weeks after sowing them in pots
6 weeks after sowing them in pots
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicia_faba
Fast
fava bean, faba bean, Broad bean, or faba bean Varieties with smaller, harder seeds that are fed to horses or other animals are called field bean, tic bean or tick bean Horse bean
Fabaceae or Leguminosae
Ackerbohne
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Vicia faba major
20cm
Feb-April; Oct-Nov
21 days
sow in deep pots in cool, frost-free place
6.0-6.8
Broad bean (Vicia faba), also known as fava bean or faba bean, is a type of legume that is native to North Africa and the Middle East. It is a popular garden plant, known for its edible beans and attractive purple or white flowers. Broad bean plants have a upright, bushy growth habit and can reach a height of up to 3 feet. The leaves are large and composed of three oval-shaped leaflets, and the flowers are small and clustered in groups of two or three. The beans are produced in long, slender pods that contain two or three beans each. To grow broad beans successfully, it is important to choose a location with well-drained, fertile soil and full sun. The plants should be spaced about 8-12 inches apart, and watered regularly to ensure that the soil stays moist but not waterlogged. Broad beans are generally easy to grow and require little maintenance, but they can be susceptible to pests and diseases, such as aphids and fungal infections. Grows best in temperatures ranging from 60° to 65°F (15-18°C) but will tolerate a range from 40°F (4.4°C) - 75°F (24°C). Broad beans are edible, and the beans can be eaten fresh or frozen, canned or dried for storage. To harvest the beans, the pods should be picked when they are plump and before the beans inside begin to harden. The beans can be removed from the pods by gently squeezing them out. Fresh beans can be stored in the refrigerator for a few days, while dried beans can be stored in an airtight container for several months. In addition to their culinary uses, broad beans also have a number of medicinal properties, and have been used to treat a variety of ailments, including asthma, bronchitis, and anemia. Broad beans are also a valuable food source for many types of wildlife, including birds, insects, and small mammals. The plants provide nectar for bees and other pollinators, and the beans are a popular food for many species of birds. Show

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Beet Beet
4-8
Biennial
Full sun
Moist
Light (sandy), Medium, Heavy (clay)
Deciduous
0.9
True
Leaves, Root
Seed - direct sow, Seed - transplant
2-3 weeks before last frost, 6-8 weeks before the first frost
6-8 weeks before last frost
2 weeks before last frost
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/beta_vulgaris
Chenopodiaceae
Rübe
https://pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=beta vulgaris craca
6.0-6.8
10°c (50°f)
5-12 days
1.5 cm
20cm
45-65
Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Conditiva Group, beetroot
Beet (Beta vulgaris vulgaris), also known as garden beet, red beet, or table beet, is a plant that is native to the Mediterranean region. It is a biennial plant that typically grows to a height of 0.5-1.5 feet and has dark green leaves that are long and rounded, with a smooth or slightly hairy texture. The stem is usually light green in color, and the plant produces small, white or yellow flowers. Beet plants grow best in well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter, and they prefer full sun to partial shade. To cultivate beets successfully, a grower will need to keep the soil moist and weed-free, and may need to thin the plants to allow for proper growth. Beets are edible, and the most commonly eaten part of the plant is the root, which is typically red or purple in color. The leaves of the plant can also be eaten, and are often used in salads. Beets can be stored after harvest by washing and trimming the roots, and then storing them in a cool, dark place. Beets have a number of uses, both culinary and non-culinary. In the kitchen, beets can be cooked in a variety of ways, including boiling, roasting, and grilling. They can also be used to add color and flavor to salads, soups, and stews. In addition to their culinary uses, beets have a number of medicinal properties and have been used to treat a variety of ailments, including indigestion, constipation, and inflammation. Beets are also valuable for their ability to improve soil fertility, as their leaves and roots contain high levels of nitrogen and other nutrients. They can be used as a natural fertilizer, and can also be used as a mulch or as a ground cover to help control weeds. Beets are not particularly attractive to wildlife, but they can provide food for a variety of animals, including deer, rabbits, and birds. Overall, beets are a versatile and valuable plant that is widely cultivated by gardeners and farmers for their edible roots and leaves, as well as for their potential uses in medicine and agriculture. ### Links [How to Grow Beets @ Harvest to Table](https://harvesttotable.com/how_to_grow_beets/) Show

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Borage Borage
6-9
Annual
Full sun, Partial sun/shade
Dry, Moist
Light (sandy), Medium, Heavy (clay)
0.6
Herbs
Flowers, Leaves
Seed - direct sow
At last frost
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borage
Medium
Common borage, Cool-tankard, Tailwort, Starflower
Boraginaceae
Borretsch
60cm
5-15 days
21°c (70°f)
Oil
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Borago officinalis
Borago
5
-2
Borage, also known as Borago officinalis, is a herb native to the Mediterranean region. It is a hairy, annual herb that grows to a height of about 60 cm, with blue, star-shaped flowers and large hairy leaves. The plant is easily differentiated from similar plants by its hairy stems and leaves, and its bright blue flowers. Borage prefers well-drained soil and full sun, and grows best in warm temperatures. It is a fast-growing plant, and can be easily cultivated by direct sowing or transplanting seedlings. Borage is not winter hardy, and should be grown as an annual in most climates. The leaves and flowers of borage are edible, and can be used in salads, soups, and other dishes. The leaves have a cucumber-like flavor, while the flowers are slightly sweet. The edible parts of the plant can be stored by freezing or drying. Borage has several medicinal uses, and has been used traditionally to treat a variety of ailments, including respiratory problems, skin irritation, and anxiety. It is also a good source of nutrients, including calcium, potassium, and vitamin C. In addition to its medicinal uses, borage has value as a companion plant in the garden. It attracts pollinators, such as bees and butterflies, and can be used as a natural pest deterrent. #### Propagation Direct sow early spring when temperatures reach 21°C (70°F). Best sown directly, as borage develops a delicate taproot. #### Links [Borage @ West Coast Seeds](https://www.westcoastseeds.com/products/borage) Show

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Coriander Coriander
2-11
Annual
Full sun, Partial sun/shade
Dry, Moist
Light (sandy), Medium
0.5
Herbs
Repels aphids, Repels potato beetles, Repels spider mites
Leaves, Seed
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coriander
Cilantro, chinese parsley, dhania
Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
Koriander
45-60
5cm
5-10 days
15°C (60°F)
Oil
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Coriandrum sativum
Coriander, also known as cilantro or Chinese parsley, is a plant native to the Mediterranean region and western Asia. The plant has delicate, fern-like leaves and small, white or pale pink flowers. It grows to a height of about one to three feet, and matures fairly quickly, generally within three to four months. Coriander can be differentiated from similar plants by its distinctive, fragrant leaves and small, white or pale pink flowers. The plant prefers well-drained soil and full sun, and grows best when watered regularly. It is not winter hardy and should be grown as an annual in most regions. Coriander is often used as a culinary herb, and the leaves and seeds of the plant are both edible. The leaves have a distinctive, fragrant flavor and can be used fresh or dried in a variety of dishes. The seeds, which are often ground into a powder, have a warm, spicy flavor and are used in many curries and spice blends. In addition to its culinary uses, coriander has a number of other uses. The plant is said to have medicinal properties, and has been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments. It is also often used as a natural insect repellent, and some gardeners plant it near other crops to keep pests at bay. The plant is also valued by wildlife, and is a popular source of nectar for bees and other pollinators. ### Propagation - Direct sowing Direct sow in early spring after risk of frost. ### Propagation - Transplanting Avoid transplanting, as cilantro is quick to bolt under any stress. #### Links [Coriander @ West Coast Seeds](https://www.westcoastseeds.com/products/santo-organic) Show

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Cucumber Cucumber
9-11
Annual
Full sun
Moist
Light (sandy), Medium, Heavy (clay)
2
Vines
Fruit, Leaves
Seed - direct sow, Seed - transplant
1 week after last frost
2-3 weeks before last frost
1 week after last frost
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucumber
Cucurbitaceae
Gurke
50-65
23cm
6.0-6.8
15-30°C (60-85°F)
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cucumis sativus
True
Fruit
Cucumber, scientific name Cucumis sativus, is a member of the gourd family. It is native to India and other parts of Asia. Cucumber is a trailing or climbing plant that grows to a height of 5-10 feet. The leaves are dark green and glossy, and the plant produces yellow flowers. The fruit of the cucumber plant is a long, green, edible vegetable with a thin skin. Cucumbers are typically about 6-9 inches long and 2-3 inches in diameter. In terms of growth and cultivation, cucumber plants prefer warm, sunny conditions and well-draining soil. They should be watered regularly, especially during dry periods. Cucumber plants are not winter hardy and should be grown in the summer months in most climates. To cultivate cucumbers successfully, it is important to provide them with adequate space to grow and to support the plants with trellises or other means to keep the fruits off the ground. The plant will develop male and female flowers. You can recognize the female by having a tiny cucumber underneath. Sometimes the plant develops a lot of male flowers first, so be patient. If you don’t see any bees pollinating. Take a male and put it on all the female flowers. Cucumber fruits are edible and can be eaten raw, pickled, or cooked. The skin and seeds of the cucumber are edible, but some people choose to remove the seeds before eating the fruit. Cucumber fruits can be stored in the refrigerator for a few days after harvest. Cucumbers have several uses. In addition to being eaten as a vegetable, they can also be used in a variety of dishes and salads. Cucumber slices are often used as a garnish or as a refreshing addition to beverages. Cucumbers are also commonly used in natural skin care products and are believed to have anti-inflammatory and soothing properties. #### Propagation Direct sow when soil is warm enough in early summer. Sow seeds individually indoors 3-4 weeks before planting outside into warm soil. Use bottom heat if possible. Transplant when plants develop third leaf. #### Medicinal Fruit is depurative, diuretic, emollient, purgative and resolvent #### Links [Cucumber @ West Coast Seeds](https://www.westcoastseeds.com/products/patio-snacker) Show

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Dill Dill
2-11
Annual
Full sun
Moist
Light (sandy), Medium
0.8
Herbs
true
Leaves, Seed
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dill
Medium
Apiaceae or umbelliferae
Dill
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Anethum graveolens
Dill (Anethum graveolens) is a plant native to the eastern Mediterranean region and West Asia. It is an annual herb that grows to a height of about 1-2 feet and has delicate, feathery leaves. The plant has small yellow flowers that bloom in the summer. Dill is a popular herb in many cuisines, especially in European and Middle Eastern dishes. It is used to flavor soups, stews, fish, and pickles. The leaves and seeds of dill are both edible and can be used fresh or dried. The seeds have a more pungent flavor than the leaves and are often used in pickling. Dill can be stored by drying or freezing the leaves and seeds. Dill prefers full sun and well-drained soil. It is easy to grow and can be started from seed or from transplants. Dill is not winter hardy and will die off in the winter. In addition to its culinary uses, dill has been used medicinally to aid in digestion and to reduce inflammation. It has also been used as a natural insect repellent. The plant is attractive to many types of beneficial insects, making it a valuable addition to any garden. Show

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Pot marigold Pot marigold
2-11
Annual
Full sun, Partial sun/shade
Moist
Light (sandy), Medium, Heavy (clay)
0.6
Repels nematodes
Flowers, Leaves, Seed
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calendula_officinalis
Medium
Calendula, Common marigold, Scotch marigold, Ruddles
Asteraceae or compositae
Ringelblume
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Calendula officinalis
21°c (70°f)
6-14 days
5.5-7.0
15cm
60
4.6
The pot marigold, also known as Calendula officinalis, is a flowering plant probably native to southwestern Asia, western Europe, and the Mediterranean region, however, its long cultivation history makes its precise origin unknown. It is a herbaceous annual plant that typically grows to be about 12-18 inches tall, with hairy stems and leaves. The leaves are lance-shaped, with a hairy surface, and the flowers can range in colour from white through yellow and orange to red and even pink. In terms of growing conditions, the pot marigold prefers well-drained soil and full sun, although it can tolerate partial shade. It is winter hardy, but may not flower as profusely in colder climates. To cultivate it successfully, a grower should plant pot marigold seeds directly in the ground after the last frost of the season. The pot marigold has a number of uses, both culinary and medicinal. The flowers are edible and can be used to add color and flavor to salads and other dishes. The petals can also be dried and used to make tea. In terms of medicinal uses, the plant has been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments, including wounds, infections, and skin irritation. The pot marigold is also attractive to a variety of pollinators, making it a valuable plant for attracting beneficial insects to the garden. Overall, the pot marigold is a versatile and easy-to-grow plant that is well-suited to a variety of garden settings. ### Propagation - Direct sow Direct sow in spring when light frost is still possible. Can be sown until early summer for fall blooms. ### Propagation - Transplant Sow indoors in late winter, transplant outside when risk of heavy frost has passed. #### Links [Calendula @ West Coast Seeds](https://www.westcoastseeds.com/products/zeolights-organic) Show

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Marjoram Marjoram
6-9
Perennial
Full sun, Partial sun/shade
Dry, Moist
Light (sandy), Medium, Heavy (clay)
0.6
Herbs
true
Leaves
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marjoram
Lamiaceae or labiatae
Majoran
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Origanum majorana
Marjoram (Origanum majorana) is a herbaceous plant that is native to the Mediterranean region. It has delicate, oval-shaped leaves that are pale green in color, and small white or pink flowers that grow in clusters. The plant grows to a height of about 30 cm and has a woody stem. In terms of growing conditions, marjoram prefers well-drained, light soil and full sun to partial shade. It can be grown from seeds or cuttings, and should be spaced about 30 cm apart. Marjoram is winter hardy in mild climates, but may need to be protected or brought indoors in colder regions. Marjoram has a number of culinary uses. It is often used as a flavoring in soups, stews, and sauces, and can be added to salads and other dishes as a garnish. The leaves and flowers of the plant are edible and can be used fresh or dried. When harvesting marjoram, it is best to pick the leaves early in the morning when they are at their most flavorful. The leaves can be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dark place for up to six months. In addition to its culinary uses, marjoram has also been used medicinally as an antiseptic and as a remedy for digestive problems. It is also sometimes used in perfumes and soaps. Marjoram is not particularly attractive to wildlife, but it can provide habitat for some beneficial insects such as bees and butterflies. Show

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Nasturtium Nasturtium
6-11
Annual, Perennial
Full sun
Moist
Light (sandy), Medium
3.5
Ground cover, Herbs
Trap crop, Repels whiteflies, Repels cucumber beetles, Attracts insects, Biomass
Flowers, Leaves, Seed, Seedpod
Seed - direct sow, Seed - transplant
1 week after last frost - late spring
2-4 weeks before last frost
2 weeks after last frost
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropaeolum_majus
Fast
Tropaeolum, Indian Cress
Tropaeolaceae
Große Kapuzinerkresse
15cm
7-12 days
12-18°C (55-65°F)
Oil
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Tropaeolum majus
Tropaeolum majus, commonly known as garden nasturtium, is a flowering plant that is native to South and Central America and can be grown annually as well as perennially. It belongs to the family Tropaeolaceae, which includes around 80 species of plants. T. majus is a popular garden plant, known for its bright, colorful flowers and attractive foliage. The flowers are typically yellow, orange, or red and have a distinctive, trumpet-like shape. The leaves are rounded and have a slightly waxy texture, and the plant produces long, trailing stems that can be used to create a cascading effect in hanging baskets or other containers. To grow T. majus, it is best to start the seeds directly in the ground or in pots after the last frost has passed. The plant prefers well-drained soil and full sun, but can also tolerate partial shade. It is important to water the plants regularly, but avoid overwatering, as this can cause the leaves to rot. T. majus can also be grown in containers and trained to climb trellises or other structures. In addition to its ornamental value, T. majus is also edible. The leaves, flowers, and seeds can be used in salads and other dishes, adding a slightly spicy, peppery flavor. The plant has also been used medicinally, as the leaves and seeds contain compounds with antibacterial and antioxidant properties. T. majus has been used to treat a variety of ailments, including respiratory infections and digestive disorders. It has also been used as a natural remedy for urinary tract infections and kidney stones. However, T. majus should be used with caution, as it can cause allergic reactions in some people. Additionally, T. majus can become invasive if allowed to spread, so gardeners should take care to keep it contained. #### Links [Nasturtium @ West Coast Seeds](https://www.westcoastseeds.com/products/jewel-mix ) Show

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Potato Potato
3-10
Perennial
Full sun
Moist
Light (sandy), Medium, Heavy (clay)
1.0
Root
Seed - direct sow
April
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potato
Irish potato, Andigena
Solanaceae
Kartoffel
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solanum tuberosum
12 inches
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a herbaceous perennial plant that is native to the Andean region of South America. It is a member of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) and is closely related to other nightshades such as tomatoes, eggplants, and bell peppers. The potato plant has a bushy growth habit and can grow to heights of 30-150 cm depending on the variety. The leaves are large, heart-shaped, and alternate along the stem. The flowers are white or purple and have five petals. The plant produces small green berries that contain numerous seeds, but most varieties of potatoes are propagated vegetatively from tubers rather than from seeds. The edible part of the potato plant is the tuber, which is an underground stem that is modified for food storage. Potatoes come in a wide range of shapes, sizes, and colors including white, yellow, red, and purple. The size and shape of the tuber depends on the variety, with some varieties producing small, round tubers and others producing large, elongated tubers. Potatoes grow best in well-draining, fertile soils in a sunny location with a pH of 4.5-6.0. They require regular watering and should be planted in a location with good air circulation to prevent fungal diseases. Potatoes are typically planted from tubers that have been treated with a fungicide to prevent disease and are spaced 25-30 cm apart in rows that are 75-90 cm apart. The tubers will begin to form in the soil around 6-8 weeks after planting and can be harvested when they reach the desired size. Potatoes are a versatile and nutritious food source that is rich in vitamins, minerals, and fiber. The tubers are eaten cooked, baked, fried, or mashed, and the leaves and flowers of the plant can also be eaten. Potatoes can be stored in a cool, dry, and dark place for several months. Potatoes have a number of uses beyond their value as a food source. The tubers can be used as seed potatoes for planting, and the leaves and stems can be used as a natural insecticide or as mulch in the garden. In some parts of the world, potatoes are also used for their medicinal properties. Potatoes are a valuable food source for a variety of wildlife, including deer, rabbits, and squirrels. The flowers of the potato plant are also a source of nectar for bees and other pollinators. Show

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Tomato Tomato
10-12
Annual, Perennial
Full sun
Moist
Light (sandy), Medium, Heavy (clay)
2.0
True
Fruit, Seed
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomato
Fast
Garden tomato, Dumádu, Garden tomato, Love apple, Lycopersicum esculentum, Tomate, Tomato, Tomato extract containing lycopene, Tomato|thakkali, Tumatis, Lycopersicon esculentum
Solanaceae
Tomate
Oil
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solanum lycopersicum, https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lycopersicon esculentum
Start seeds indoors 5-6 weeks before last frost
In containers or in rows in beds around last frost date
6.2-6.8
70-80°f
The tomato is a flowering plant native to South America. It is a member of the nightshade family and closely related to the potato. The tomato plant typically grows to a height of 1-3 meters and has a weak, hairy stem. The leaves are arranged alternately on the stem and are typically dark green in color. The plant produces small yellow or white flowers, which develop into the fruit we know as tomatoes. The fruit itself is typically red, but can also be yellow, orange, green, or purple. Indeterminate tomato plants are perennials in their native habitat, but are cultivated as annuals. Determinate, or bush, plants are annuals that stop growing at a certain height and produce a crop all at once. Tomatoes prefer warm, sunny growing conditions and well-drained, humus-rich soil. They can be grown in a variety of soil types, but perform best in soil with a pH between 6 and 6.8. In order to cultivate tomatoes successfully, growers may need to provide support for the plant (such as a stake or cage) to prevent the fruit from weighing down the stem, and may also need to water and fertilize the plant regularly. Tomatoes are generally considered to be frost-sensitive, so in areas with cold winters they may need to be grown in a greenhouse or indoors. There are a great number of cultivars. The edible parts of the tomato plant are the fruit and the leaves. The fruit can be eaten raw or cooked, and is commonly used in a variety of dishes, such as salads, sandwiches, and pasta. The leaves, although not commonly eaten, are also edible and have a slightly bitter taste. After harvest, tomatoes can be stored at room temperature, in a cool place, or in the refrigerator. Show

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Lettuce Lettuce
5-9
Annual, Biennial
Full sun, Partial sun/shade
Moist
Light (sandy), Medium
0.9
Herbs
true
Leaves, Seed
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lettuce
Garden lettuce
Asteraceae or compositae
Blattsalat
Oil
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca sativa
Lettuce, Lactuca sativa, is a plant native to the Mediterranean region. It has green, elongated leaves that form a loose head. The stem is relatively short and the plant grows to a height of about 8-12 inches. Lettuce is a fast-growing plant, with some varieties able to be harvested in as little as 45 days. Lettuce can be differentiated from similar plants by its elongated leaves and loose head formation. It is also relatively short compared to other leafy green plants like kale and spinach. Lettuce prefers cool temperatures and grows best in full sun or partial shade. It is a hardy plant and can tolerate light frost, but will not survive extreme cold. To cultivate lettuce successfully, growers should ensure that the soil is well-drained and moist, and that the plants are spaced appropriately. Lettuce is edible and the leaves can be eaten raw in salads or cooked. The leaves can also be stored by washing and drying them, and then wrapping them in a damp paper towel before placing them in the refrigerator. Lettuce has a number of uses. It is a popular ingredient in salads and other dishes, and has been used medicinally to treat a variety of ailments, including insomnia and digestive issues. Show

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Onion Onion
3-9
Annual
Full sun
Moist
Light (sandy), Medium
0.6
Herbs
Bulb, Flowers, Leaves, Root, Seed
Seed - direct sow, Seed - transplant
Spring or fall
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onion
Garden onion
Alliaceae
Zwiebel
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium cepa
50°f, 10°c
Seed indoors 6 weeks before transplanting in the garden
2-6 inches
6.0-7.0
Allium
Onion (Allium cepa) is a plant species in the family Amaryllidaceae. It is native to central Asia and is commonly grown as a vegetable in many parts of the world. Onions are biennial plants, meaning they typically have a two-year life cycle. In the first year, the onion forms a small, rounded bulb with thin, papery skin. In the second year, the onion will produce a tall stem with hollow, elongated leaves and a small, spherical flower head. Onions are typically grown for their bulbs, which are used as a food ingredient in many dishes. The bulbs can vary in size and shape, depending on the variety, but are generally spherical or oblong in shape and range in size from about 2-4 inches in diameter. Onions are commonly differentiated by their color, which can range from white to yellow to red. Onions prefer well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter. They should be planted in a sunny location and will benefit from regular watering, especially during dry periods. Onion bulbs can be harvested when they reach the desired size, typically after about 100-150 days of growth. To store onions, they should be dried and cured in a cool, dry place for about two weeks before being placed in a mesh bag or other breathable container. Onions are edible and are commonly used as a food ingredient in many dishes. The bulbs are the most commonly used part of the plant, but the leaves and stems can also be used in cooking. Onions have a pungent, spicy flavor and are often used to add flavor to soups, stews, and other dishes. Onions can be stored for several months if properly dried and cured. In addition to their use as a food ingredient, onions have also been used for their medicinal properties. They have been used to treat a variety of ailments, including coughs, colds, and respiratory infections. Onions are also sometimes used as a natural fertilizer, due to the high levels of sulfur and other nutrients they contain. Onions are not known to provide significant value to wildlife. They are not a preferred food source for most animals and do not provide any significant habitat value. However, some insects, such as the onion maggot, can be pests of onion crops. Show

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Turnip Turnip
7-11
Biennial
Full sun, Partial sun/shade
Moist
Light (sandy), Medium, Heavy (clay)
0.5
True
Leaves, Root
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassica_rapa
Brassicaceae or cruciferae
Speiserübe, Mairübe
Weed potential
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Brassica rapa
6.0-7.5
Cross-pollination
45-80
7-29°c
4-7 days
16cm
Flea beatles, Cutworms, Root maggots, Cabbage loopers, Cabbageworms, Cabbage aphids, Slugs, Snails, Nematodes
Black leg, Black rot, Turnip mosaic virus
The turnip, scientific name Brassica rapa, is a root vegetable native to the Mediterranean and eastern Asia. It is a cool season crop that is often grown in the spring or fall. The turnip plant has large, dark green leaves that grow from a thick, white stem. The turnip root itself is a round, white or purple vegetable with a slightly bitter taste. In terms of size and growth rate, turnips can grow to be quite large, with some varieties reaching up to 10 inches in diameter. They are generally fast-growing plants, with the ability to mature in as little as 30 days. To differentiate turnips from similar plants, it is important to note that turnips have a distinct, slightly bitter flavor and a white or purple root. Some plants that may be confused with turnips include rutabagas and parsnips, which are similar in appearance but have different flavors and nutritional properties. When it comes to growing conditions, turnips prefer well-draining soil with a pH of 6.0 to 6.8. They should be planted in a location with full sun exposure and watered regularly to ensure proper growth. To cultivate turnips successfully, it is important to keep the plants well-watered and free from weeds, as well as to thin out the seedlings once they reach about 3 inches in height to allow for proper spacing. Turnips are generally winter hardy and can tolerate cold temperatures, making them a popular choice for fall and winter gardens. They can also be grown as a cover crop to help improve soil health and structure. In terms of edibility, the turnip root is the most commonly eaten part of the plant. It can be cooked in a variety of ways, including boiling, roasting, and steaming. The greens of the turnip plant can also be eaten, and are often cooked in a similar manner to other leafy greens. After harvest, turnip roots can be stored in a cool, dark place for several weeks. In terms of uses, turnips have a number of practical applications. In addition to being eaten as a vegetable, turnip roots can be used as animal feed, and the leaves can be used as a source of livestock forage. The turnip plant can also be used as a cover crop to help improve soil health and structure, and the root can be used as a natural form of pest control in the garden. ### Links [Brassica rapa @ Purdue Horticulture](https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Brassica_rapa.html) [Brassica rapa @ Cornell Gardening](http://www.gardening.cornell.edu/homegardening/scene0f7d.html) Show

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Red Clover Red Clover
5-9
Perennial
Full sun
Moist
Light (sandy), Medium, Heavy (clay)
0.6
Herbs
true
Flowers, Leaves, Root, Seed
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trifolium_pratense
Medium
Fabaceae or leguminosae
Roter klee
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Trifolium pratense
Red clover is a flowering plant native to Europe, Western Asia, and Northwest Africa. It typically grows to about 1-2 feet tall and has trifoliate leaves with a characteristic white or pinkish "V" shape at the base. The flowers are typically a deep pink color and are arranged in compact, spherical clusters. Red clover prefers well-drained, fertile soil and a temperate climate. It can be grown as a perennial in cooler climates, but is often grown as an annual in warmer climates. To cultivate red clover successfully, a grower will need to ensure that the soil is adequately prepared, with adequate moisture and nutrients. Red clover is winter hardy and can tolerate frost. It can be grown as a cover crop to help improve soil fertility and structure, and is often used as a natural source of nitrogen for other crops. It is also used as a source of food for grazing animals. The edible parts of red clover include the leaves and flowers, which can be eaten raw or cooked. The leaves can be stored by drying or freezing, while the flowers can be stored by drying or preserving in syrup. Red clover has a number of medicinal uses, including the treatment of coughs and colds, as well as being used as a natural estrogen replacement. It is also used to improve skin health and as a natural diuretic. Red clover is a valuable plant for wildlife, providing nectar for pollinators such as bees, as well as being a food source for other animals. It is also used by some bird species for nesting material. Show

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Cucamelon Cucamelon
Annual
Full sun
Vines
Seed - direct sow, Seed - transplant
At last frost
3-4 weeks before last frost
1 week after last frost
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melothria_scabra
Cucamelon, Mexikanische mini-gurke
60-70
23cm
6.5-7.0
15-30°c (60-85°f)
Mouse melon
Cucurbitaceae
-3
67
Corn, Sunflowers and any other high growing plant, can act as a trellis. #### Propagation Direct sow when soil temperatures reach 15°C (60°F). Plant inside 3-4 weeks before planting outside, and use bottom-heat to help germination. Transplant when plant develop their third true leaf. #### Links [Cucamelon @ West Coast Seeds](https://www.westcoastseeds.com/products/cucamelon) Show

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Chamomile Chamomile
5-9
Annual
Full sun
Dry, Moist
Light (sandy), Medium, Heavy (clay)
0.5
Herbs
at last frost date
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matricaria_chamomilla
Asteraceae or Compositae
Kamille
Matricaria recutita - L., German chamomile, wild chamomile
Direct sow in autumn or shortly before latest date of frost
Start seeds indoors 6-8 weeks before last frost date
1 week
Chamomile is a plant native to Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia. It has a small, daisy-like flower with white petals and a yellow center. The leaves are thin and feathery, and the stem is thin and wiry. Chamomile grows to be about 12-24 inches tall and spreads to about 16-20 inches wide. It grows quickly, producing flowers within a few weeks of germination. Chamomile prefers well-drained soil and full sun to partial shade. It is a hardy plant and can tolerate drought and frost. To cultivate chamomile successfully, it is important to keep the soil moist and well-watered, especially during hot weather. Needs light to germinate. The flowers and leaves of chamomile are edible and can be used in a variety of dishes, including teas and salads. The flowers can also be dried and stored for later use. Chamomile has a number of medicinal properties and has been used to treat a variety of conditions, including anxiety, insomnia, and digestive issues. It is also believed to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. In addition to its medicinal uses, chamomile can also be used as a ground cover or as a companion plant in gardens. It can help to repel pests and improve the health of nearby plants. Chamomile is also valued by bees and other pollinators, making it an important plant for maintaining biodiversity in gardens and agricultural areas. #### Links [Chamomile @ Plants For A Future](https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Matricaria recutita) Show

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